Lead is classified as a chalcophile underneath the Goldschmidt classification, that means it’s generally discovered mixed with sulfur. Many lead minerals are comparatively mild and, over the course of the Earth’s historical past, have remained within the crust instead of sinking deeper into the Earth’s interior. This accounts for lead’s comparatively high crustal abundance of 14 ppm; it’s the thirty eighth most abundant component in the crust. Primordial lead—which comprises the isotopes lead-204, lead-206, lead-207, and lead-208—was largely created because of repetitive neutron capture processes occurring in stars. In such anions, every atom is at a polyhedral vertex and contributes two electrons to every covalent bond alongside an edge from their sp3 hybrid orbitals, the opposite two being an external lone pair.
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